Adaptation issues required increased attention during the formation of the Paris Agreement. Long-term collective adjustment targets are included in the agreement and countries are accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the agreement with reduction.  Adjustment targets focus on improving adaptive capacity, increasing resilience and limiting vulnerability.  Rarely is there a consensus among almost all nations on a single subject. But with the Paris Agreement, world leaders agreed that climate change was fueled by human behavior, that it posed a threat to the environment and humanity as a whole, and that global action was needed to stop it. In addition, a clear framework has been put in place for all countries to make emission reduction commitments and strengthen these measures over time. Here are some important reasons why the agreement is so important: unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which set legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as sanctions for non-compliance) only for industrialised countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developing – to play their part and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, the Paris Agreement incorporates greater flexibility: there is no language about the commitments countries should make, nations can voluntarily set their emissions targets (NNCs), and countries will not be punished if they fail to meet their proposed targets. But what the Paris Agreement requires is to monitor, report and reassess countries` individual and collective goals over time, in order to bring the world closer to the broader goals of the agreement.
And the agreement includes an obligation for countries to announce their next round of targets every five years, unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which aimed at this target but did not contain a specific requirement to achieve it. In 1992, President George H.W. Bush and 107 other heads of state adopted a series of environmental agreements at the Earth Summit in Rio, Brazil, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human intervention in the planet`s climate systems in the long term. The Pact does not set limit values for greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and does not contain enforcement mechanisms, but rather establishes a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emission targets. Participating countries meet annually at a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to tackle climate change. Ultimately, all parties have recognized the need to “prevent, minimize and treat loss and damage,” but in particular any mention of indemnification or liability is excluded.  The Convention also adopts the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, an institution that will attempt to answer questions relating to the classification, management and sharing of responsibilities in the event of loss.  From November 30 to December 11, 2015, France received representatives from 196 countries at the United Nations Climate Change (UN) Conference, one of the most important and ambitious global meetings ever organized.
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