Ultrasound Inter-Reader Agreement

All three advisors had varying levels of performance, but all already had experience in gastric sonography. The first advisor was a certified sonographer with more than 10 years of clinical experience and 4 years of experience (>500 gastric scanners) in the evaluation of gastro-ultrasound ultrasound. A second counselor was a clinical anaesthetist with more than 10 years of experience in other clinical ultrasound applications and a 4-year (>500 previous gastric scans) experience in gastric sonography. The third advisor was an anesthesia fellow with 3 years of experience in other ultrasound applications and a 6-month (>50 scans) experience in gastric sonography. In addition, the MDC values for SL dimensions showed length (MDCUS – 0.069 cm compared to MDCCaliper – 0.083 cm), thickness (MDCUS – 0 cm) compared to MDCCaliper – 0,, 021 cm) and width (MDCUS – 0.013 cm compared to MDCCaliper – 0 cm) shows that the U.S. measurements showed absolute accuracy greater than MDC values lower than caliphate measurements for the length and thickness of the SL. while the brake saddle showed higher absolute accuracy at lower MDC for the width dimensions of the SL. According to the MDC can be considered as the size of the change needed to ensure the confidence of the measurement in order to be sure that these values are not the result of random secondary variations or measurement errors12, These MDCs can determine as cut-off values for determining the SL dimensions of changes secondary to anatomical anomalies5,6,6,7,8 , invasive ultrasound procedures9, and band lesions after treatment21,22. The ultrasounds were performed with a low-frequency curve converter (2 to 5 MHz) with a Philips (CX 50) (CX 50) , WA) or sonosite (M-Turbo) (Bothell, WA) with image compounding technology. After an 8-hour Lent for solids and liquids, subjects were subjected to a basic-gastro-ultrasound ultrasound by a certified sonographer in the side decubitus supine and straight positions to avoid the presence of a significant stomach volume on the baseline. According to the baseline assessment, each subject was randomized to receive one in five apple juice (0, 100, 200, 300 or 400 ml).

Randomization was performed with a computer-generated list of random numbers and hidden in opaque envelopes. A standardized scanning protocol was performed from 3 minutes after ingestion. Subjects were subjected to three gastro-ultrasound examinations by three independent advisors in a random order. It is important to note that there was no statistically significant measure when a single measure was used for certain measurements (Figures 4 and 5). However, the thickness, CSA and echoogenicity of the gross values showed no significant difference. The largest difference between absolute intermediate average values was about 10% for the measurement of echoogenicity (Table 1). It is likely that this small difference did not reflect a significant clinical recurrence. In fact, echogenity represents the tendon through a gray scale where the black color is not a wave reflection and the white color refers to total wave reflection. Anisotropy is an artifact and occurs when organized fibrils can reflect much of the soundproofing beam in one direction from the transmitter.

This will result in a change in the tendon from light hyperechoic to dark cholesterol [12]. To avoid this adverse effect, the ultrasound probe must be positioned perpendicular to the structure depicted [13]. Since the images were taken blindly by two advisors, it is likely that the angulation of the transmitter used for the analysis was not exactly the same. Thus, there may be some disparity in the results of echoogenicity. However, it is pointed out that a high correlation was found for echogity, probably because a clearly defined and standardized capture protocol was used. This discovery corresponds to another study on muscle [10]. A blind observational study was conducted with repeated measurements to determine the intra- and inter-rated reproducibility of the ultrasound measurements of the patellar tendons and