The Working Group on Economic Affairs and Human Rights stressed the need to enshrine human rights in politics and practice as countries begin to translate ambitious SDGs into concrete action. Second, human rights mechanisms and processes can help to support the weak accountability architecture of the SDGs. National human rights institutions, for example, play a central role in monitoring the progress made by the SDGs, aligning national objectives and indicators with human rights, facilitating the participation of rights holders, and hearing complaints from those affected by unfair policies and practices. 8 UN and regional human rights watchdogs are also integrating the SDGs into their country review processes and seeking synergies from the SDG reports. 9 These mechanisms address key aspects of accountability that are under-fed by the SDG review system, such as transnational responsibility and corporate accountability. Conventional bodies, for example, make states increasingly accountable for the impact of their aid, trade, taxation and investment policies on human rights outside their borders, 10 and their duty to protect themselves from human rights violations in business. 11 As currently planned, assessments of the progress of the national and regional SDGs will be supported by regular global reviews of macroeconomic progress in the high-level policy forum. In line with the Program`s 2030 commitment to leave no one behind, monitoring efforts should assess progress in achieving outcomes for all. This requires the need to provide broken down data that highlights the situation of the most disadvantaged groups and groups affected by discrimination. To address this challenge, the opportunities and the risks it entails, it will be essential to adopt human rights approaches to data and statistics.
Surveillance should focus on the gradual reduction of inequalities over time at the local, national, regional and global levels, and links with international human rights mechanisms should be strengthened. The UN human rights architecture includes a national report by the Human Rights Council (HRC), which meets three times a year and provides for national inspections, according to a rotating schedule of mandatory reports. Since 2006, the General Periodic Review (RST) process has sought to ensure the effectiveness of reporting by allowing countries to simultaneously report on all their human rights obligations. States` obligations include the obligations set out in the Charter of the United Nations; The Universal Declaration of Human Rights; All human rights instruments in which the state participates; Voluntary commitments and commitments, such as national human rights policies and programmes; international humanitarian law. The 2030 agenda focuses on the clear understanding that human rights, peace and security and development are closely linked and mutually reinforcing.